This is the third installment of our SpaceFund Reality (SFR) rating, focused on space habitats. With this rating we begin to move into areas that are more obviously related to the SpaceFund mission of supporting “frontier enabling” technologies. While the launch database showed a field that is over crowded, many other critical sectors of the space economy are not, and some are frankly, wide open.
Our research has showed that this sector, space habitats, is still underdeveloped and represents a potential opportunity for investors and entrepreneurs. If one is to believe what Musk, Bezos and governments such as the US and UAE are saying about their plans to both dramatically lower the cost of space access and enable a permanent human presence in space, within a few years we may see a ‘housing shortage’ on the frontier.
It is important to note that space also presents us with many unique challenges, not the least of which is applying traditional terrestrial definitions to things that may seem to be the same in space – or – as often happens – a tendency to create new and exotic names to apply to what on Earth would be common. For example, “habitats” or “space stations.” In actuality both of these are just buildings. They may be located in space, they may be exotic in their form, technology, and structure, but they are still just buildings. They are designed to hold or house people and/or the things and objects that belong to people, or that people use. While some of them may move, such as a habitat orbiting the Earth or a Lagrange point in space, they are not intended or designed to move and deliver people or payloads from point A to point B.
Our research into this sector also highlighted two distinct groups of companies that are actively designing and developing habitats. While these companies are all planning to or are constructing buildings in space, they are working to solve fundamentally different problems depending on the location of those buildings. This means the types of companies, the types of habitats, and the types of engineers and scientists working on those solutions are fundamentally different. For this reason, we have broken these companies into two different database: In-Space Habitats and Surface Habitats.
If you haven’t already, please consult our SpaceFund Reality (SFR) ratings page to learn more about the rating, its purpose, and the underlying formula, as well as to view a complete list of the SpaceFund sectors of interest.
How to Use This Table
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Important Note (Alpha Sort Columns vs Numeric Sort Columns): In the Occupancy, Floor Area, and Volume columns, any figure listed as a “0” is simply a placeholder for unavailable data. This is due to the nature of this table format, and to ensure that the columns sort properly, a numeric character must be included in each cell. So, for example, if a company’s habitat is listed to have a Floor Area of “0” this simply means that this information is not publicly available and the “0” acts as a replacement for “N/A”.
The Funding column is set to sort alphabetically. Since this column contains alphabetic characters in some cells, it will sort alphabetically, not numerically and so the “-” character has been used to represent unavailable data. All other columns in the table will also sort alphabetically.
Important Note (Companies not Products): This database, and the SpaceFund Reality ratings, are based on COMPANIES, not specific products or technologies.
How to Provide Updated Data
Have we missed your company? Do you feel that your company should have a different rating? Is the listed data inaccurate or outdated? Do you see missing data for your company? The best way to update your information in this database is to reach out to us directly to provide additional information about your technology, management team, funding history, and company progress. We are also eager to learn about any additional data sources that can help us in our ongoing research, so please feel free to share any resources you know of with our team.
Updates will be published on approximately a monthly basis.
SpaceFund Reality (SFR) Rating
In-Space Habitats Database
(scroll down or click here to see the Surface Habitats Database)
Last Update: 12 October 2022
|wdt_ID||Company||SFR||Destination||Category||Funding ($M)||Occupancy||Floor Area (m^2)||Volume (m^3)||Country||HQ Location||Description|
|82||Boeing||9||Earth Orbit, Moon||Hardware & Service Provider||Public||0||0||0||USA||Titusville, FL||Operator of the ISS and supporting the development of deep space habitats as part of NASA's NextSTEP program|
|83||Thales Alenia Space||9||Earth Orbit||Hardware & Service Provider||Joint Venture||0||0||460||France||Cannes||Provided ESA with the Columbus, Harmony, Tranquility, Cupola, and Leonardo modules for the ISS|
|84||Lockheed Martin||8||Earth Orbit, Mars||Hardware & Service Provider||Public||0||0||0||USA||Littleton, CO||Supporting the development of deep space habitats as part of NASA's NextSTEP program|
|85||Sierra Space||8||Earth Orbit||Hardware & Service Provider||-||4||0||0||USA||Sparks, NV||Developing the Orbital Reef commercial space station in partnership with Blue Origin|
|86||Axiom Space*||7||Earth Orbit||Owner/Operator||150||16||0||523||USA||Houston, TX||As the successor to ISS, serving six segments: national asttonauts, private astronauts, researchers, manufacturers, exploration companies, advertisers|
|87||ILC Dover||7||Earth Orbit||Hardware & Service Provider||125||0||0||0||USA||Frederica, DE||Developing and manufacturing inflatable habitats and shelters for use in space and for lunar/planetary exploration|
|88||Northrop Grumman||7||Moon||Hardware & Service Provider||Public||0||0||0||USA||Dulles, VA||Supporting the development of deep space habitats and designing the lunar Gateway HALO|
|89||Blue Origin||6||Earth Orbit||Owner/Operator||-||10||0||830||USA||Kent, WA||Developing the Orbital Reef commercial space station in partnership with Sierra Space|
|90||NanoRacks (Voyager)||6||Earth Orbit||Owner/Operator||-||4||0||340||USA||Webster, TX||Developing the Starlab commercial space station|
|91||Gravitics||3||Earth Orbit||Owner/Operator||-||0||0||400||USA||Seattle, WA||Growing the number of people living and working in space through human-centric space solutions|
|92||Orbital Assembly||3||Earth Orbit||Owner/Operator||-||28||0||2,080||USA||Rocklin, CA||Developing gravity capable space stations on orbit|
|93||ThinkOrbital||2||Earth Orbit||Owner/Operator||-||47||0||4,000||USA||Pasadena, CA||Designing and manufacturing high volume, cost-efficient habitable space structures for Low-Earth-Orbit and beyond|
|94||Vast Space||2||Earth Orbit||Owner/Operator||-||0||0||0||USA||El Segundo, CA||Developing artificial gravity space stations to expand humanity across the solar system|
|95||InterPlanetary Ventures||0||-||Hardware & Service Provider||-||0||0||0||USA||San Francisco, CA||Developing the inner solar system for human settlement, with infrastructure, exploration and development projects|
|96||Leviathan Space||0||Earth Orbit, Mars||Hardware & Service Provider||-||0||0||0||USA||Pompano Beach, FL||Developing space stations with artificial gravity that will serve as the future havens that will facilitate research, manufacturing, science, trade and tourism in deep space|
|97||Our Space||0||-||Owner/Operator||-||0||0||0||USA||Firestone, CO||Dramatically increasing the number of in-space destinations|
|Company||SFR||Destination||Category||Funding ($M)||Occupancy||Floor Area (m^2)||Volume (m^3)||Country||HQ Location||Description|
SpaceFund Reality (SFR) Rating
Surface Habitats Database
(scroll up or click here to see the In-Space Habitats Database)
Last Update: 12 October 2022
|wdt_ID||Company||SFR||Destination||Category||Funding ($M)||Occupancy||Floor Area (m^2)||Volume (m^3)||Material 1||Material 2||Country||HQ Location||Description|
|190||ICON||6||Moon||Developer||251||0||0||0||-||-||USA||Austin, TX||Developing a space-based construction system to support future exploration of the Moon|
|191||AI SpaceFactory||5||Mars, Moon||Designer/Developer||-||4||100||430||Martian Polymer||Basalt Fiber||USA||New York, NY||Multi-planetary architecture and technology firm pioneering autonomous and sustainable construction with a first-principles design vision|
|192||SpaceX*||5||Mars||Designer/Developer||3570||0||0||0||-||-||USA||Hawthorne, CA||Using Starship to establish a Mars base, then build a thriving city and eventually a self-sustaining civilization on Mars|
|193||Bigelow Aerospace||3||Moon||Designer/Developer||-||6||0||330||-||-||USA||Las Vegas, NV||Developing "First Base", a habitat for the lunar surface|
|194||Bjarke Ingels Group||3||Moon||Designer||-||0||0||0||-||-||Denmark||Copenhagen||Designing space-based human habitats|
|195||Clouds Architecture Office||3||Mars, Venus||Designer||-||0||0||0||-||-||USA||New York, NY||Designing the Mars Ice Home and other concepts|
|196||Exploration Architecture Corporation||3||Mars, Moon||Designer/Developer||-||4||0||0||Regolith||Polyethylene||USA||San Antonio, TX||Developing 3D printed Mars and lunar habitats, lunar infrastructure materials, and lunar site development architectures|
|197||Foster + Partners||3||Moon||Designer/Developer||-||0||0||0||Lunar Regolith||-||United Kingdom||London, England||Collaborating with ESA on lunar habitat design and construction|
|198||HASSELL/Eckersley O’Callaghan||3||Mars||Designer||Joint Venture||4||0||0||Microwaved Regolith||-||Australia||Adelaide, South Australia||Designing a habitat built by robots with Martian materials|
|199||LIQUIFER Systems Group||3||Mars, Moon||Designer||-||0||0||0||-||-||Austria||Vienna||Conceptualization and design of future habitats for living and working on and off Earth|
|200||Mars Incubator||3||Mars||Designer/Developer||-||4||0||0||Regolith||Polyethylene||USA||Brooklyn, NY||Developing Mars habitation technology|
|201||SAGA Space Architects||3||Mars, Moon||Designer||-||2||0||41||-||-||Denmark||Copenhagen||Making space livable for future space travelers by approaching the design of habitats from a human perspective|
|202||Space Exploration Architecture||3||Mars||Designer||-||4||95||160||Concrete||HDPE||USA||New York, NY||Designing the Mars X-House|
|203||Albert Kahn/Yates Construction||2||Mars||Designer||Joint Venture||4||0||0||Concrete||HDPE||USA||Detroit, MI||Designing a 3D printed Mars habitat|
|204||Instarz||2||Moon||Designer/Developer||-||8||0||1,000||-||-||Puerto Rico||Mayaguez||Creating Remnant, a self-sustaining habitat for the lunar surface|
|205||Kepler Shipyards||2||Moon||Developer||-||0||0||0||-||-||USA||Austin, TX||Developing the Mk 1 Outpost for the OpenLuna Foundation|
|206||Skidmore, Owings & Merrill||2||Moon||Designer||-||4||0||0||-||-||USA||Chicago, IL||Collaborating with ESA and MIT on a Moon village research project|
|207||4th Planet Logistics||1||Mars, Moon||Designer||-||0||0||0||-||-||USA||Mundelein, IL||Designing habitats from naturally occurring terrestrial lava tubes in order to allow humans to find homes on the Moon and Mars|
|208||habitatQ||1||Mars, Moon||Designer/Developer||-||0||0||0||-||-||USA||Los Angeles, CA||Designing a commercially compelling space-optimized habitat product suite|
|209||Spartan Space||1||Mars, Moon||Designer/Developer||-||4||0||0||-||-||France||Marseille||Developing Eurohab, an inflatable habitat for missions on the surface of Moon or Mars|
|210||United Space Structures||1||Moon||Designer/Developer||-||100||17,483||73,062||Lunar Regolith||-||USA||-||Providing subsurface habitation capabilities to enable Lunar commerce|
|211||ACASA||0||Moon||Designer/Developer||-||0||0||0||-||-||Portugal||-||Focused on using exponential technologies to build homes on the Moon|
|212||Exolife||0||Moon||Designer/Developer||-||0||0||0||-||-||USA||-||Establishing life on the Moon via a 3D printed lunar base|
|213||Planetary Development Systems Corp||0||Mars||Designer||-||0||0||0||-||-||USA||Houston, TX||Designing a case for exoplanning on Mars|
|214||Spacely Habitats||0||Mars||Designer/Developer||-||0||0||0||Bio Plastics||-||USA||Spartanburg, SC||Building pre-fab habitats with radiation resistant polymer plastics|
|Company||SFR||Destination||Category||Funding ($M)||Occupancy||Floor Area (m^2)||Volume (m^3)||Material 1||Material 2||Country||HQ Location||Description|
SpaceFund Sectors of Interest
SpaceFund is interested in a number of sectors of the space economy, specifically Transportation, Communication, Human Factors, Supplies, and Energy. In the coming months we will post SFR ratings for companies from all of these sectors, providing a robust overview of the state of frontier-enabling companies across the industry. Please check back frequently to view new sub-sector databases, and sign up to receive our emails to be notified of each new release.
Click on the black buttons below to view the available SFR databases.