Reality Rating

Habitats Databases

Habitats Databases

This is the third installment of our  SpaceFund Reality (SFR) rating, focused on space habitats. With this rating we begin to move into areas that are more obviously related to the SpaceFund mission of supporting “frontier enabling” technologies. While the launch database showed a field that is over crowded, many other critical sectors of the space economy are not, and some are frankly, wide open. 

Our research has showed that this sector, space habitats, is still underdeveloped and represents a potential opportunity for investors and entrepreneurs. If one is to believe what Musk, Bezos and governments such as the US and UAE are saying about their plans to both dramatically lower the cost of space access and enable a permanent human presence in space, within a few years we may see a ‘housing shortage’ on the frontier.

It is important to note that space also presents us with many unique challenges, not the least of which is applying traditional terrestrial definitions to things that may seem to be the same in space – or – as often happens – a tendency to create new and exotic names to apply to what on Earth would be common. For example, “habitats” or “space stations.” In actuality both of these are just buildings. They may be located in space, they may be exotic in their form, technology, and structure, but they are still just buildings. They are designed to hold or house people and/or the things and objects that belong to people, or that people use. While some of them may move, such as a habitat orbiting the Earth or a Lagrange point in space, they are not intended or designed to move and deliver people or payloads from point A to point B.

Our research into this sector also highlighted two distinct groups of companies that are actively designing and developing habitats. While these companies are all planning to or are constructing buildings in space, they are working to solve fundamentally different problems depending on the location of those buildings. This means the types of companies, the types of habitats, and the types of engineers and scientists working on those solutions are fundamentally different. For this reason, we have broken these companies into two different database: In-Space Habitats and Surface Habitats.  

If you haven’t already, please consult our SpaceFund Reality (SFR) ratings page to learn more about the rating, its purpose, and the underlying formula, as well as to view a complete list of the SpaceFund sectors of interest. 

How to Use This Table

Sort: Click on the column heading to sort A-Z; click again to sort Z-A.

Search: To search within the entire table, simply type your query into the search area at the top right of the table. If you’d like to search within a specific column, use the search box at the bottom of that column.

Download: You can download this table as an Excel or CSV file by using the icons at the top of the table. You can also print the table.

Screen Size: The database is too big to fit on most screens, so you’ll need to use the scroll bar at the bottom of your screen to scroll right to see additional columns, and continuing scrolling down to see all companies. 

Important Note (Alpha Sort Columns vs Numeric Sort Columns): In the Occupancy, Floor Area, and Volume columns, any figure listed as a “0” is simply a placeholder for unavailable data. This is due to the nature of this table format, and to ensure that the columns sort properly, a numeric character must be included in each cell. So, for example, if a company’s habitat is listed to have a Floor Area of “0” this simply means that this information is not publicly available and the “0” acts as a replacement for “N/A”.  

The Funding column is set to sort alphabetically. Since this column contains alphabetic characters in some cells, it will sort alphabetically, not numerically and so the “-” character has been used to represent unavailable data. All other columns in the table will also sort alphabetically.

Important Note (Companies not Products): This database, and the SpaceFund Reality ratings, are based on COMPANIES, not specific products or technologies. 


How to Provide Updated Data

Have we missed your company? Do you feel that your company should have a different rating? Is the listed data inaccurate or outdated? Do you see missing data for your company? The best way to update your information in this database is to reach out to us directly to provide additional information about your technology, management team, funding history, and company progress. We are also eager to learn about any additional data sources that can help us in our ongoing research, so please feel free to share any resources you know of with our team.

Updates will be published on approximately a monthly basis.  

SpaceFund Reality (SFR) Rating

In-Space Habitats Database

(scroll down or click here to see the Surface Habitats Database)


Habitats (In-Space)

wdt_ID Company SFR Destination Category Funding ($M) Occupancy Floor Area (m^2) Volume (m^3) Country HQ Location Description
26 Orion Span 2 Earth Hardware & Service Provider - 6 0 0 USA San Mateo, CA Building and sustaining human communities in space
27 Leviathan Space 0 Earth Orbit, Mars Hardware & Service Provider - 0 0 0 USA Pompano Beach, FL Developing space stations with artificial gravity that will serve as the future havens that will facilitate research, manufacturing, science, trade and tourism in deep space
28 InterPlanetary Ventures 0 - Hardware & Service Provider - 0 0 0 USA San Francisco, CA Developing the inner solar system for human settlement, with infrastructure, exploration and development projects
17 Boeing 9 Moon Hardware & Service Provider Public 0 0 0 USA St. Louis, MO Operator of the ISS and supporting the development of deep space habitats as part of NASA's NextSTEP program
18 Thales Alenia Space 9 Earth Orbit Hardware & Service Provider Joint Venture 0 0 460 France Cannes Provided ESA with the Columbus, Harmony, Tranquility, Cupola, and Leonardo modules for the ISS
19 Lockheed Martin 8 Mars, Moon Hardware & Service Provider Public 0 0 0 USA Littleton, CO Supporting the development of deep space habitats as part of NASA's NextSTEP program
20 Axiom Space 7 Earth Orbit Owner/Operator 16 16 0 523 USA Houston, TX As the successor to ISS, serving six segments: national asttonauts, private astronauts, researchers, manufacturers, exploration companies, advertisers
21 Bigelow Aerospace/BSO 6 Earth Orbit Owner/Operator - 6 0 330 USA Las Vegas, NV Achieving economic breakthroughs in the costs associated with the design, development, and construction of habitable space structures
22 ILC Dover 7 Earth Orbit Hardware & Service Provider 125 0 0 0 USA Frederica, DE Developing and manufacturing inflatable habitats and shelters for use in space and for lunar/planetary exploration
23 NanoRacks 6 Earth Orbit Owner/Operator 5.5 2 0 65 USA Webster, TX Repurposing spent upper stages of launch vehicles and converting them into commercial space stations in orbit
Company SFR Destination Category Funding ($M) Occupancy Floor Area (m^2) Volume (m^3) Country HQ Location Description

SpaceFund Reality (SFR) Rating

Surface Habitats Database

(scroll up or click here to see the In-Space Habitats Database)


Habitats (Surface)

wdt_ID Company SFR Destination Category Funding ($M) Occupancy Floor Area (m^2) Volume (m^3) Material 1 Material 2 Country HQ Location Description
63 Team Zopherus 2 Mars Designer/Developer - 0 0 0 Concrete HDPE USA Rogers, AR Designing a Mars habitat using a moving 3D printer that deploys rovers to retrieve local materials
64 4th Planet Logistics 1 Mars, Moon Designer - 0 0 0 - - USA Mundelein, IL Designing habitats from naturally occurring terrestrial lava tubes in order to allow humans to find homes on the Moon and Mars
65 Exolife 0 Moon Designer/Developer - 0 0 0 - - USA - Establishing life on the Moon via a 3D printed lunar base
60 Instarz 2 Moon Designer/Developer - 8 0 1,000 - - Puerto Rico Mayaguez Creating Remnant, a self-sustaining habitat for the lunar surface
61 Mars City Design 2 Mars Designer - 4 27 0 - - USA Los Angeles, CA Designing Alpha, a 3D printed Mars habitat
62 Skidmore, Owings & Merrill 2 Moon Designer - 4 0 0 - - USA Chicago, IL Collaborating with ESA and MIT on a Moon village research project
58 Albert Kahn/Yates Construction 2 Mars Designer Joint Venture 4 0 0 Concrete HDPE USA Detroit, MI Designing a 3D printed Mars habitat
59 Exploration Architecture Corporation 3 Mars, Moon Designer/Developer - 4 0 0 Regolith Polyethylene USA San Antonio, TX Developing 3D printed Mars and lunar habitats, lunar infrastructure materials, and lunar site development architectures
51 Bigelow Aerospace 6 Moon Designer/Developer - 6 0 330 - - USA Las Vegas, NV Developing "First Base", a habitat for the lunar surface
52 SpaceX 6 Mars Designer/Developer 3570 0 0 0 - - USA Hawthorne, CA Using Starship to establish a Mars base, then build a thriving city and eventually a self-sustaining civilization on Mars
Company SFR Destination Category Funding ($M) Occupancy Floor Area (m^2) Volume (m^3) Material 1 Material 2 Country HQ Location Description

Change Log

Update #2. August 16, 2019.  

In-Space Habitats

New entries:
  • None
Updated SFR rating:
  • None
    Updated information:
    • None
      Removed Entries
      • None

        Surface Habitats

        New entries:
        • Bigelow Aerospace
        Updated SFR rating:
        • AI SpaceFactory (4 -> 5)
        • Space Exploration Architecture (4 -> 3)
        • Albert Kahn/Yates Construction (3 -> 2)
        • Instarz (1 -> 2)
        • Mars City Design (3 -> 2)
        • 4th Planet Logistics (2 -> 1)
          Updated information:
          • AI SpaceFactory
          • Instarz
            Removed Entries
            • None

              Change Log

              Update #1. May 16, 2019.  

              In-Space Habitats

              New entries:
              • None
              Updated SFR rating:
              • Axiom Space (5 -> 7)
              • Bigelow Aerospace/BSO (9 -> 7)
              • Orion Span (3 -> 2)
                Updated information:
                • Axiom Space
                • NanoRacks
                  Removed Entries
                  • Blue Origin

                    Surface Habitats

                    New entries:
                    • Exolife
                    • SpaceX
                    Updated SFR rating:
                    • AI Space Factory (3 -> 4)
                    • Instarz (2 -> 1)
                    • Mars Incubator (2 -> 3)
                      Updated information:
                      • Space Exploration Architecture
                        Removed Entries
                        • None

                          SpaceFund Sectors of Interest

                          SpaceFund is interested in a number of sectors of the space economy, specifically Transportation, Communication, Human Factors, Supplies, and Energy. In the coming months we will post SFR ratings for companies from all of these sectors, providing a robust overview of the state of frontier-enabling companies across the industry. To begin, we have created an SFR database for the Earth-to-Space sub-sector of Transportation (launch), as well as a database for the Beyond Earth Orbit sub-sector of Communication, the Habitats sector of Human Factors, and the Satellite Servicing sector of Supply Chain. We also created a special database in honor of the 50th anniversary of the Apollo landing, called the Moon List that catalogs those companies who are working on a permanent return to the Moon. Please check back frequently to view new sub-sector databases, and sign up to receive our emails to be notified of each new release.

                          Click on the black buttons below to view the available SFR databases.

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